It is still used in veterinary medicine for inducing surgical anaesthesia.
The results showed good surgical anaesthesia, a fast onset time, and postoperative mobilization after 90 minutes without complications.
It has sedative, anticonvulsant and hypnotic effects, and is still used in veterinary medicine for induction in surgical anaesthesia
Thiamylal is still in current use, primarily for induction in surgical anaesthesia or as an anticonvulsant to counteract side effects from other anaesthetics.
For example, 0.1 % bupivacaine may provide adequate analgesia for a woman in labour, but would likely be insufficient for surgical anaesthesia.
Esdaile is thought by many to have been a pioneer in the use of hypnosis for surgical anaesthesia in the era immediately prior to James Young Simpson's discovery of chloroform.
Levallorphan was formerly widely used in general anesthesia, mainly to reverse the respiratory depression produced by opioid analgesics and barbiturates used for induction of surgical anaesthesia whilst maintaining a degree of analgesia ( via KOR agonism ).
Between 1350 and 1365 Theodoric Borgognoni produced a systematic four volume treatise on surgery, the " Cyrurgia ", which promoted important innovations as well as early forms of antiseptic practice in the treatment of injury, and surgical anaesthesia using a mixture of opiates and herbs.